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  • 中國城市和小城鎮改革發展中心官網
    中歐城鎮化伙伴關系秘書處官網

    李鐵:治理形象和政績工程不能“溫良恭儉讓”

    來源:城市中國網2019年01月22日 14:59 (編輯:今朝)


        文/李鐵 中國城市中心首席經濟學家

      最近從新聞中看到,住建部叫停了一些貧困縣的形象工程。拍手稱快之余,總是感覺措施有點兒溫柔。通報批評或者追究行政責任,或者是黨紀政紀處分,遠遠不能達到懲惡的目的。

      改革開放四十年來,雖然我國城市發展取得了巨大的成就,但是粗放性的發展模式也為未來的轉型帶來了巨大危機。我們在研究城鎮化政策的時候,曾經對提高城鎮化質量,提倡集約發展提出了明確的要求,實際上作為數據目標就是把城鎮人均占有建設用地的規模降到適度的水平,例如從人均150平方米降到120平方米甚至到100平方米的水平,才好說城市是集約發展的。其實作為我們長期研究中國的城市發展政策的人來說,對于近些年城市建設的弊病真的如鯁在喉。豈止是一個簡單的粗放性增長的概念性問題。

      我記得中科院院士陸大道先生在前些年曾經拍了幾百張照片,詬病城市建設的浪費現象。豪華的辦公樓、過于奢侈的景觀大道、巨大的廣場,等等。其實我們看到的還有各種投入巨資建設的、給領導參觀用的規劃展覽館,當然也有打著綠色名義的與城市人口規模嚴重不符的所謂“生態公園”。這些“形象的工程”投資不止千把萬,幾乎都是數以億計。這些現象不僅僅發生在貧困縣,在各級城市也很普遍。大家幾乎是司空見慣,很多當地的官員還對這些政績工程引以為榮。

      為什么各地熱衷于“形象工程”和“政績工程”,無外乎有以下幾個方面的原因:一是有了土地出讓金,當年就要花出去,之所以大把銀子的揮霍,是因為有財政的支持;二是施政總得給上級領導看得見的效果吧,除了數字的支撐,更重要的是有的可看,這些政績工程可以給上級領導留下足夠的視覺印象,說明能干;三是主觀的思維方式和權力的結合,沒有制度的約束,想干什么就干什么,可以把自己的個人偏好直接轉化為工程效果;四是政府的工程從來不考慮收益,也不考慮未來的維護成本和費用,更不用考慮是否會形成債務負擔;最后就是官員的流動性,導致了在執政期間不必在乎當地的長遠利益,更重要的是即使出現了所謂的投資錯誤,出現了嚴重的浪費,哪怕是上億甚至幾十億、上百億,只要個人沒有拿錢進入私人腰包,一樣不會受到任何懲處。

      我注意到新聞報道提起這幾個貧困縣的政績工程和形象工程的時候,算了一筆賬,就是當地的貧困人口就業和公共服務資金嚴重短缺的問題。其實即使不是貧困縣,即使是那些三四線城市甚至更發達的城市,難道就沒有了公共服務支出問題,就沒有了農民進城,基礎設施投入的短板,沒有了各種民生工程的需求?問題同樣存在。只是發生在貧困縣的問題更是發人深省。

      我們最近在研究宏觀經濟形勢的時候,經常為地方出現的幾個問題所擔憂,例如關于地方債問題,例如關于房地產過熱問題,等等。研究一下地方的支出結構是否合理,可能也就會得出債務的形成原因。但是不可否認的一條,就是各種形象和政績工程的維護成本,已經成為政府未來的重要債務負擔。而房地產問題的源頭之一,就是政府需要通過提高土地出讓的收益作為最重要的資金來源,房地產當然是地方政府賣地的吸金利器。當然,隨著官員的流動,土地的不斷出讓,房地產的發展會出現供給的嚴重波動,也必然影響到土地出讓金的收益。這些年我們在宏觀經濟政策中,更多地關注了收入問題,關注了債務的數據問題。其實關于地方政府的支出行為,在很長一段時間內都被嚴重地忽視了。假如我們曾經有過像香港一樣的制度約束,嚴格控制土地出讓金的使用和約束支出,也許地方政府出讓土地的利益動機就會被大大壓縮,所謂“形象和政績工程”也就沒有進一步放大的空間。當然,我們也不會看到當前地方政府面臨的債務壓力那么突出。

      我們最近看到了關于“三公經費”的嚴管已經取得了十分明顯的效果,政府的行政開支已經被大大壓縮。但是相比于各種“形象和政績工程”,行政性開支僅僅是一個小頭。如果我們不能從根子上約束那些雖然沒有揣到個人腰包里、但卻由于盲目投資造成的巨大浪費的工程性支出行為,小到一個景觀雕塑,中到一個豪華廣場和過寬的奢華馬路,大到一個投入幾百億形成巨大債務窟窿的“新區建設”,地方性債務擴張的問題將會無限蔓延和泛濫,將會嚴重壓垮地方的經濟,導致各類城市成本的上升,致使地方政府因債務而不能運轉和開展服務。

      “貪污和浪費是極大的犯罪”。十八大以來,黨中央在反腐斗爭中取得了壓倒性勝利。在控制“三公經費”方面也取得了十分明顯的效果。但是最大的債務隱患和經濟的成本上升是這些已經存在了幾十年的工程性支出的浪費現象。還好住建部已經宣布了向“形象和政績工程”開戰。但是,如何從根子上杜絕這種現象的繼續蔓延,不僅僅要“快刀斬亂麻”,更重要的是納入法制化的軌道嚴肅處理。讓那些拿著國家的錢為自己的任意主觀行為買單而造成嚴重浪費的官員們,也在未來的治理過程中能夠體會到不敢、不能和不想。做到這些,不僅僅要對現行的各種“形象和政績工程”加大懲罰的力度,也要為給國家和地方帶來巨大損失的各種名目的“工程”建立責任追究制度。要找出幾個典型來,不僅僅對他們進行紀律處分,要把這種“犯罪”納入法制管理,以儆效尤。

      

      2019年1月

      

      

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