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  • 中國城市和小城鎮改革發展中心官網
    中歐城鎮化伙伴關系秘書處官網

    憑這一點,北京真的比不過上海?

    來源:城市中國網2018年09月04日 20:21 【作者:中國新聞周刊 】 (編輯:竹書流年)

    生活不易,常有懷疑人生的時刻。

    烈日下暴走兩小時想喝冰可樂,深夜餓肚子找不到餐館,出了地鐵就趕上雷陣雨……此時,如果轉角出現一家便利店,那簡直就是沙漠綠洲,天堂大門,生命之光。

    不好意思,在北京90%的概率找不到。

    不僅要在方圓500米內找到過街天橋或地下通道,還要上天入地過馬路,九曲十八彎再走幾百米,才能到便利店門口。

    恭喜,你遇到一家北京典型的非常不便利的便利店。

    北京的道路

    制霸北京的本土便利店

    好鄰居

    千辛萬苦抵達了便利店,抬頭一看,是好鄰居——這是除全時以外,北京地區數量最多的便利店品牌。

    這種感覺就像是母胎單身28年終于收到告白,對方卻是尼古拉斯·趙四。紅白相間的店頭格外樸素,慘白又暗淡的光把它照得像一家煙酒小賣部。

    這里沒有店員小哥哥或小姐姐明亮的笑容,只有大媽大爺從眼鏡片上向你射來的犀利目光……但,已經足夠讓人慰藉。

    店里與北京美食荒漠的特色一脈相承:沒啥好吃的。

    早餐只能買茶葉蛋、包子和煮玉米的人,和午餐吃得下魚香茄子、宮保雞丁和番茄菜花的是一群人。果腹而已,別無奢求。

    好鄰居的冷柜

    7-Eleven的冷柜,面積要大一倍

    鮮食產品最能體現一家便利店的水平和特色。但由于繁雜的辦證手續,北京便利店的鮮食種類相對較少。

    當上海廣州的朋友熱烈討論羅森新出的甜點蛋糕,7-Eleven關東煮的湯汁最濃,車仔面拌上沙茶醬有多香,全家又出了什么網紅零食時,北京的朋友默默退群了。

    羅森便利店售賣的可口可樂世界杯紀念款

    北京:便利店荒漠

    上海:便利店森林

    北京這座城,天生沒有便利店生長的土壤。

    簡單來說,北京城市規劃的“功能分區”導致了居民區和商圈的割裂。人們的出行如同潮汐,白天涌向二三環的商圈,晚上又回到各自位于三環以外的住宅區。

    商圈內的便利店,大多是白領在上班時間光顧,這就失去了夜間營業的意義;而住宅區的便利店,白天客流量較少,只有晚上下班回家的人群才會來買東西。

    從數據圖來看,北京便利店密度最高的地方也是三里屯、工體、國貿等商圈附近,這些地方駐扎著眾多寫字樓、大型購物中心和娛樂場所。

    而西部和南部的居民區,便利店明顯稀疏很多。

    南三環的方莊和北五環的望京是傳統居民區,周邊基本沒有大型商圈,煙酒店和小街鋪就是最普遍的消費場所。

    北京二環某居民區的煙酒小賣部

    而五環外的天通苑住宅區,干脆就是一座“睡城”。除了鱗次櫛比的住宅高樓,基本沒有其他業態。

    “睡城”天通苑社區

    再看看東三環的CBD商圈和東四環朝陽大悅城,商業很發達,但附近居民區又很少。

    繁華的國貿商圈

    總之,北京的區域要么是以住宅區為主,要么以商圈集中。不管開在北京的哪里,人流密集的時段都只有半天。不穩定的客群,非常不利于便利店發展。

    但上海就不一樣了。

    上海的商圈和居住區基本融為一體,商業區依附居民區發展,即使是新規劃的浦東新區,商務和辦公也僅僅是其功能的一部分,周圍居住的人口并不少,客流全時段保持穩定。

    因此,上海的面積還沒有北京的一半大,便利店數量卻幾乎是北京的兩倍。

    無論是購物中心Mall,小區門口,地鐵站里,還是彎彎繞繞的偏僻小路上,便利店潤物細無聲地分散在城市各處,24小時默默陪伴,儼然成為了上海城市文化的一部分。

    便利店的要義就在于順手、順帶能消費。但如果城市車行道多,人行道少,便捷消費的發展就會受到阻礙。

    坦白說,北京的城市道路規劃的銜接度沒有上海那么高。

    北京以寬闊的大路居多,胡同通常是走不通的。而以發達的街道文化著稱的上海,弄堂和小路四通八達,便利店可以深入到城市的每一條“毛細血管”。

    上海街道

    何況北京本來為數不多的便利店,還有一部分被淹沒在很難找的位置里。不少便利店只有一個堪比彩票店大小的門臉兒。夜晚連明亮的店頭和玻璃窗都看不清,顯得非常可疑……

    如果你不巧要在夜幕降臨后去找一家不熟悉的便利店,無異于在黑燈瞎火里尋找一位非洲黑老哥。

    北京南三環居民區 晚上8點半的快客便利店

    北京西直門地鐵通道里的一家7-Eleven

    便利店是一座城市的縮影

    愛上一座城市其實很簡單,可能是凌晨上海隨處可見的24小時便利店,可能是杭州公交車禮讓行人的行為,可能是雨天的北京地鐵免費發放的雨衣,也可能是南京地鐵“穿長裙的女士下樓梯請注意收起裙角“的廣播。

    細節背后是四個大字:以人為本。

    “鳥巢”體育館的設計曾被指過于冰冷宏大,但也有人提出不同的觀點:它并不是在標榜建筑物本身,重點反而是內中擠滿的觀眾,后者才是瑞士設計師赫爾佐格的用心所在。

    從這一角度說,“這個設計多少還有些民主的意味”。

    鳥巢國家體育館

    或許“鳥巢”設計會有多種解讀,但“北京南站配不上中國第二大火車站”的吐槽卻無可回避。

    來源:《干脆,請上海虹橋站接管了北京南站吧!》

    北京南站擁擠的候車廳

    “當國外普遍以早已用服務質量評判一座火車站時,'尺寸'依然是中國車站的重要標桿。”正如哈佛大學博士李歐梵在《人文文本》中提到的,“表面上是為市民和社會服務的城市規劃,實際上卻是為地產商、發展商和政府服務。”

    究竟是用行政管理來規劃城市,還是以服務的角度來建設一座城?火車站、體育館、便利店……這些就是城市最好的縮影。

    上海羅森嗶哩嗶哩主題便利店

    城市需要星星點點的便利店。

    平時可日常購物,深夜有暖胃夜宵,急需時可救急,充公交卡繳電費也方便。在夜晚的街道,它們亮起溫暖的光,發揮著“街道眼”的功能,給人的安全感甚至不亞于一座報警亭。

    便利店為人們提供的需求一直在延伸,也為偌大城市帶來一份人情味。便利店的確是一門生意,但它的存在又超越了消費場所,正向公共空間的意義延伸。

    就在幾天前,北京上榜“全球最宜居城市”,榮獲中國內地第二名。怎么選的不知道……不過我敢說,他們肯定沒考察便利店吧。

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    中國城市和小城鎮改革發展中心主辦  京ICP備13029620號-1 郵箱:contact@ccud.org.cn

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