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  • 中國城市和小城鎮改革發展中心官網
    中歐城鎮化伙伴關系秘書處官網

    沈遲、連欣:新型城鎮化與鄉村振興要互促共融

    來源:城市中國網2018年09月04日 16:05 【作者:沈遲、連欣 】 (編輯:竹書流年)

    實施鄉村振興戰略,是黨的十九大作出的重大決策部署,在我國農業農村發展史上具有劃時代的里程碑意義。今年中央一號文件深入貫徹落實習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想和黨的十九大精神,聚焦鄉村振興戰略,對做好新時代“三農”工作,走中國特色社會主義鄉村振興道路,譜寫鄉村全面振興新篇章作出了系統部署。

    提前實現現代化目標,農村不能成為短板。在過去不同的歷史階段,為破除城鄉二元結構、破解“三農難題”,黨中央、國務院先后提出過一系列戰略決策。十六大報告提出“城鄉統籌”。十六屆五中全會明確了“社會主義新農村建設”的目標要求。十八大以來,“新型城鎮化”成為政策討論熱點。而新時代的“城鄉融合”和“鄉村振興”,有著不同于以往的新的內涵與任務,注定了兩者之間無法割裂,而需要互促共融。

    各地在落實鄉村振興戰略過程中,也出現了各種疑問,集中體現在鄉村振興與新型城鎮化關系的處理上。一些地方甚至出現了一些誤解,有人認為鄉村振興戰略與新型城鎮化戰略是相互對立、排斥的,或者認為實施鄉村振興意味著新型城鎮化戰略不再重要。還有人覺得,要在我國新型城鎮化進程基本完成之后,再推動鄉村振興,否則可能造成資源的浪費與錯配。甚至有人覺得,鄉村振興是要給所有鄉村地區進行投資建設,以城市的標準和模式建設所有農村,這樣來吸引已經進入城市的人口回到鄉村。這些誤解都是當前亟待厘清的。

    新型城鎮化和鄉村振興
    是不可割裂的命運共同體

    新型城鎮化和鄉村振興不可割裂,二者均是推進現代化、解決“三農”問題的重要途徑,是相互促進、相輔相成的。城鎮化戰略能夠有力地支撐鄉村振興戰略的實施,為鄉村提供城市現代文明,促進城市現代化的要素更好地配置到農村和農業當中。我國現代化進程,必須是城鎮化戰略與鄉村振興戰略同時發力、不可偏廢。

    首先,城鎮化是實現現代化的必由之路,如果沒有城鎮化進程,農業國家無法成為現代化國家,城鎮化是鄉村振興的必要前提。城鎮化、工業化、信息化、農業現代化相互關聯、同步發展,是中國實現現代化建設的核心內容,彼此相輔相成。城鎮化的過程是產業結構從農業部門轉向工業和服務業部門,從而引發勞動力從農村地區遷移到城市地區的過程。由于城市所代表的現代工業部門具備比傳統農業部門更高的生產效率和更高的利潤,工業化的推進必然引發勞動力不斷地從農業地區流向城市地區。人類從森林、草原走向農耕區,再走向城市,是所有現代化國家都必須經歷的過程,也是一個不可逆轉的過程。

    而新型城鎮化是我國城鎮化發展進入特定的歷史時期后提出的城鎮化升級轉型方略。相比過去,新型城鎮化倡導從單純關注規模增長到質量與規模并重,從關注城市建設的物質實體到關注人文和生態環境。當前,我國城鎮化進程中,仍然存在農業轉移人口市民化進展緩慢、城鎮化質量不高、對擴大內需的主動力作用沒有得到充分發揮等問題。新型城鎮化是最大的內需潛力所在,是經濟發展的重要動力,也是一項重要的民生工程。推進新型城鎮化,是我國經濟社會發展中必須長期堅持的一項重大戰略。

    其次,富裕農民的根本出路在于減少農民,農業現代化使農業生產所需要的勞動力越來越少,沒有城鎮化吸納大量勞動力,大量的農業人口仍然滯留在農村,就談不上鄉村振興。農民進城了,每個農業人口占有的土地資源多了,農業人口的收入才可能接近城鎮人口,不平衡才能趨近于平衡。

    第三,農產品也只有更多地銷往城市,才能更好地實現其價值。如果沒有城鎮化,農產品只是在農村地區相互交換,產生不了多少剩余價值。而農業技術、設備等的升級和生產也靠工業化和城鎮化來支撐。因此沒有工業化、城鎮化,農業現代化也不可能實現。

    新型城鎮化和鄉村振興
    只有彼此借力才能互惠共贏

    鄉村振興離不開城市要素的積極應用,要走城鄉融合發展之路。建設新農村、建設美麗鄉村,絕不是關起門來,孤立地靠農村資源來建設農村。務必要因地制宜,要開門借力。特別是利用好城市資源,在農村發展中把城市元素發揮極致,加快推進農業農村現代化。我們研究城市,經常強調不能就城市論城市,一定要有區域的視角。研究鄉村發展也是一樣,城市和鄉村是相互促進、共生共存的。在城鎮化進程中,農村人口不斷進入城市,這是客觀規律,但不能以鄉村的荒蕪、衰敗為代價。中國城鄉關系在經歷單向城市化以后,已經轉向城鄉互動階段,人口、土地和資本從單向配置到城市,轉為城鄉兩個空間的相互流動和配置。在城鄉互動階段,人們對城市和鄉村兩種文明的認識發生變化,兩者的互補和互需增強,有助于城鄉兩個文明在異質中發揮各自優勢。以人為核心是鏈接兩大戰略的根本橋梁。

    破除體制機制壁壘是實現城鄉融合一體發展的至關重要的環節。黨的十九大報告提出要健全城鄉融合發展的體制機制和政策體系,其目的在于促進城鄉要素和資源從單向流動向雙向流通轉變。真正實現鄉村振興,必須以改革創新的思路,破除在政策機制、思想觀念等方面的城鄉二元結構,激發農村各類要素的潛能和各類主體的活力,不斷為農業、農村發展注入新動能。

    鄉村振興的實踐要點

    鄉村振興并不等于所有村都要“振興”。習近平總書記多次指出,新農村建設一定要走符合農村實際的路子,遵循鄉村自身發展規律,充分體現農村特點,注意鄉土味道,保留鄉村風貌,留得住青山綠水,記得住鄉愁。總書記強調,關鍵是要做到規劃先行,哪些村保留,哪些村整治,哪些村縮減,哪些村做大,都要經過科學論證,不要頭腦發熱,不顧農民意愿,強行撤并村莊,趕農民上樓。因此,村莊建設的著力點應放在有獨特資源、獨特區位、能夠活化的村莊如何可持續地存活。要重視中心村作為農村公共服務中心的作用,完善基礎設施和公共設施配套,并引導周邊小型的規劃撤并村農民向中心村集中。對于一些發展基礎好、潛力較大的資源優勢村和新的農村聚居點等,同樣加大支持力度,建立全民覆蓋的基本公共服務體系。

    鄉村振興要保留有價值的村莊和鄉愁魅力。鄉愁是“人類一種難以捕捉的情愫”,是對鄉土、鄉音和鄉味的牽掛。這種無法解開的情結和回鄉的沖動,在城鎮化的浪潮下,愈發高漲,包括安全、健康、地方化的產品,鄉村旅游與休閑,寧靜的環境與淳樸的民風等。對有價值的歷史文化名村、有記憶的村莊,應注重歷史文化保護與傳承,保留其作為重要生態環境和精神文明載體,保留農村印記。

    鄉村振興不能忽視“消亡中”的村莊。城鎮在增加,農村在減少,這是不可阻擋的發展潮流。村莊減少的根本原因在人的流出,這也產生了留守兒童和留守老人問題,應該引起關注并加以解決。大量農民進城之后,原來在農村的房屋也要收拾好、整理好、利用好,以形成生態宜居、鄉風文明、治理有效的農村新風貌。

    作者簡介:

    沈遲,國家發改委城市和小城鎮改革發展中心副主任、總規劃師,教授級高級城市規劃師

    連欣,國家發改委城市和小城鎮改革發展中心注冊城市規劃師

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